Ernst Toller's dramas are the product of reflection on his political experience. This study analyses his ideology of revolutionary Socialism and its articulation in his literary work. It adopts a chronological approach, placing great importance on primary sources. It also takes a synoptic view of his work, in which his public speaking, political journalism and documentary prose are shown to complement and clarify the better-known dramas. It demonstrates that the creative tension in Toller's work, often consciously transposed into the dialectic of dramatic conflict, is one of political ideas - of Anarchism and Marxism, idealism and materialism, voluntarism and determinism.