This volume brings together research on the evolution of civilisation in the Andean region of South America from the work of sixteen leading scholars, at one time actively engaged in fieldwork in Peru. Beginning with early chiefdom societies living along the Peruvian coast 2000 years before Christ, the authors trace the growing complexity of Andean states and empires over the next 3000 years. They examine the accomplishments of the ancient Andeans in the rise of magnificent monumental architecture and the construction of unparalleled prehistoric irrigation systems. They also look at the dominant role of warfare in Andean societies and at the collapse of empires in the millennia before the arrival of the Spanish in 1534. Together, the contributors provide the first systematic study of the evolution of polities along the dry coastal plains and high mountain valleys of the Peruvian Andes.